While reading an excerpt from “How the Hippies Saved Physics: Science, Counterculture, and the Quantum Revival [Excerpt]” from Scientific American, I again started pondering on spooky-interaction.
Einstein saw a problem with quantum spooky-interaction at a distance, i.e., quantum entanglement. An observer can’t measure neither position or speed (momentum) accurately (noncommutativity) at the same time, because we are outside the reference frame or system of an individual particle being measured; outside the looking glass so to speak, existing within our own snow shaker (reference frame). Although we are made of lots of elementary particles, collectively they work as their own system, within a larger framework of another system.
Just as we can’t see outside our observable Universe or inside a black-hole, the same fuzz occurs with an individual elementary particle because we are not part of that system, which exists in a different phased space from what we exist within. We see a shadow or ghost of that individual particle and we appear reflected to the observed particle’s true nature also as a shadow or ghost.
Within quantum mechanics an elementary particle is said to have spin; that is spin direction. Wolfgang Pauli first proposed the concept of spin, who later formulated a mathematical theory in 1927. Quantum mechanics uses two types of angular momentum: orbital angular momentum and spin. So why is spin important? Spin has no direct analogous classical mechanical equivalent, however quantum mechanical spin does contain information about direction.
Elementary particles have no measurable internal structure, and therefore no common centre to rotate about, unlike a solar system. The spin of an elementary particle is an inherent physical property of that individual elementary particle, which is analogous to electrical charge and rest mass of the elementary particle. The value of an elementary particle’s spin quantum number can be a non-negative integer or a fraction, such as 0, ½, 1, 3/2, 2, etc.
This is where things get really interesting with quantum mechanical spin. The system of measurement used to describe a spin vector, will determine the amount of rotation that is required to see the elementary particle as it was originally measured. So if one rotates a spin-½ particle by 360 degrees, the elementary particle will not display the same quantum characteristics as originally measured, the spin-½ particle has to turned a further 360 degrees to return it back to its original measured state.
Electrons need to be turned through 720 degrees to be measured with the same electrical charge and position, this is somewhat analogous to gravity acting like a mirror on the structure of space-time. Within geometric-scape of space-time, we see a shadow of an individual particle, that exists within its own spatial reference frame inside of Einstein space-time, a reflective copy mirrored by gravity. We do not exist as part of an elementary particle’s internal reference-frame, however elementary particles exist within our reference frames as more than just shadows and ghosts.
This is one possible explanation as to why elementary particles interact differently and why we cannot measure both position and or momentum accurately. I am now going to bolster the ingredients to this gedankenexperiment to make a sponge, well spongy space. Postulate the following: Cracks between the spaces.
Maybe space-time is like a honeycomb sponge, where certain particles can pass through, such as neutrinos, depending upon space-time’s configuration. An elementary particle while in wave form may stretch through cracks like entangled string. However when observed, it ‘slows down’ to reveal its shadow properties. As elementary particles clump together to form atoms, cells, plants, animals planets and stars, a collection of matter becomes too large to pass through space-time’s sieve-like honeycomb sponge structure.
After all, if gravity acts like a mirror, could this space-scape reflect, hide and shadow the true nature of elementary particles? George Musser, Scientific American, 2 February 2012 describes the problem as:
“it is not just any old force, but a reflection of the structure of space-time, on which all else depends”.
A possible experiment could be confirmed by building scientific apparatus to test the sponginess of space-time. Take a particle that rotates, (not spin as in electrical charge, but rather has angular momentum) or an atom like caesium so its decay can be measured as a clock. Place this atom into an interferometer at very a cold temperature (near absolute zero) inside a totally reflective sphere, with a very strong rotating magnetic field surrounding. Outside the sphere is a rotating electrical field ‘spinning about’, lets see what results this produces for measuring quantum gravity.
If the wave function collapses with an entangled atom, it should produce a measurable change to the total energy of the system inside the apparatus. Of course this experiment could be closer to science fiction than physics.