Time Machines and the Universal co-ordinate system

This is a new version from the submitted article by myself 14857 of rec.arts.sf.science Subject: Time Travel, is it spatial relocation? The title of this document is: Time Machines and the Universal co-ordinate system.

Please note: I have posted and email several people with material that is contained within this documentation during 1995. The first draft was produced in May 1995 and the final draft was completed on 21st of November 1995.

Copyright Notice © 1996

This document, including all of its parts, is not in the public domain and is the intellectual property, Copyright © 1996. Permission to distribute the parts of this document that are mine, not including the quoted material, in its entirety (unedited and including this copyright notice) is permitted, provided that no fees are charged for the reproduction and distribution of the material with the exception of any fee necessary for the transmission of this information in any format or by any means of dissemination. Any necessary fee covers categories such as: reproduction on a photocopier, scanner, or any other means of reproduction; and the distribution by any means. The use of external material within this document for referencing or other purposes which belongs to and is copyrighted and/or registered trademarks of those respective owners, is the property of those owners. ©

Star Trek (R), “Warp Nacelles” ® and CDP (Continuum distortion propulsion) ® are registered trademarks of Paramount Pictures. “Hunt for Red October” is a Paramount Picture film ©.  JET (Joint European Torus) is a European Community project based in Culham, Oxfordshire, England. New Scientist, 16th November 1991, Vol. 132, No. 1795, This Week, Michael Kenward, “Fusion becomes a hot bed for the Future” ©, is an article in New Scientist on the success of JET’s nuclear fusion. John Gribbin’s “The Search of Schrodinger’s Cat” ©, (1991), is published by Black Swan edition. Andrew Watson, “Wanted: dead or alive” ©, New Scientist, 13th May 1995, No. 1977, p42., is a review of the book “Schrodinger’s Kittens and the Search for Reality” by John Gribbin, published by Weidenfeld & Nicolson ©, pp261. Lawrence A. Crum and Kenneth S. Suslick, “Bubbles hotter than the Sun” ©, New Scientist, 29th April 1995, pp36-40, No. 1975, is published by IPC Magazines Ltd. Spatial Inductive Gyrodynamic Distortion Module (SIGDM) is © copyrighted and is a Trade Mark ™.

Keywords: magnetohydrodynamics; sonoluminescence; magnetic containment fields; spatial-theory; cosmic strings; wormholes; time-travel; quantum tunneling.


The purpose of this document is to delve further into the issues that I discussed within my posting, 14857 of rec.arts.sf.science, Subject: Time Travel, is it spatial relocation? This new documentation is an expanded version of that material with additional information.

The document’s purpose is two fold. It is to focus discussion onto some of the areas of space-time, in particular relativity theory. Its second purpose is to discuss some of the possible different forms of time-travel as discussed within the science community and by science-fiction writers. Its main focus will capitulate into a discussion of a theoretical model of SIGDM ™ technology.

It should be noted that this documentation is science-fiction based, and is not intended to be taken seriously. However, the ideas within here cannot be ruled out, until they can be either proved or disproved. There are no bounds to human imagination. Is the construction of a time-machine just wild hypothetical theory that scientists and science-fiction writers discuss?

1. In order to set the foundations for this discussion, I shall start by first probing into the murky areas of what we perceive time to be.

“Knowledge is dangerous in the hands of fools, as for those who would use it could destroy entire worlds”, (Krakston, 2663).

In order to set the foundations for this discussion, I shall start by first probing into the murky areas of what we perceive time to be. The definition of time is not an easy concept to grasp. Time has been speculated about since before the dawn of the first civilisations. Examples of cultures past which used tools to measure the equinox can still be found in southern England at Stone-Henge, additionally similar types of “technology” have been used amongst many other cultures across history; including countries such as: Ireland, Norway, Central Africa, South America, etc… The notion of time has stuck into conscious perception and rules our very lives, which have become based upon a modernist industrial based economic society. I shall discuss in a future paper the development of science’s culture, links with science’s application with science-fiction and its foundations.

However, my concerns for this discussion are not so much to do with how the brain perceives what we call “time”, but rather its physical attributes that cause a direct effect within the cosmos.

Within the last 450 years, theories have been developed about the universe that have turned religion onto its head and have herald a new religious order, “science”. Within recorded history, these theories notably started with Nicolaus Copernicus, and moved onto Galileo Galilei, through to Newton, Einstein, Heisenberg, Shernberge, de Selby, Zorac, Dayno, (circa 2684). At the very core of their discoveries, each have postulated a theory, which has made a significant impact upon the way that time is perceived; not all agree with the proposed theories. However, no matter how much we speculate on space-time’s raw constituency, space-time as a physical entity will not change. Our understandings and perceptions of its functions may alter as we gather more information – but will we necessarily learn from this?

So, what is this substance of time? Is it part of a fabric of space, intrinsically interwoven to bring order to a chaotic existence? (Einstein’s theory). Is it all about us, and matter moves within it, through its space? (Plenums’s theorem). Or is it a “movable feast” belonging to a multidimensional facade that cat-cradles all fibres of the universe? (Sommer’s theory).

One thing is for certain, time is a definite structure, with substance that effects the very known Universe that we exist within. But if we exist in time, and we can physically measure changes, then do we travel through time? Indeed we do, in one direction, forwards, forever ageing at a human defined rate, whose measurements are based upon the Earth’s rotation and orbit of its star. But we do not “feel” time as we can feel three of the other known dimensions of space. We know of the physical presence of space by looking at real-world objects, such as boxes. They have length, depth and breadth; also called Length, Width and Height (LxWxH). These dimensions are tangible. The temporal dimension is experienced in a different manner and measured by things such as age or atomic decay in atoms, etc..

According to Einstein’s Space-time geometry, movement in the three tangible dimensions of LxWxH, are coupled to another dimension, that of time (t); hence they produce the four dimensional space-time. Others have looked at Einstein’s work and produced other theories, such as Minkowski, who further expanded upon the relationship between time and the photon, which is represented as a two dimensional drawing called a light-cone diagram. This defines the available space for movement within space-time for matter that travels below the speed of light. Relativity does not preclude the existence of particles which can travel faster than light, but they do stipulate that any such particles, can never travel slower than the speed of light. Well, that’s all fine and dandy, but what does this all have to do with time-travel. I shall endeavour to explain.

2. Foundations for a descriptive model, based upon observable facts, on what makes the universe tick.

“gods and fools play with dice, dwellers in time just observe” (Dayno, 2658).

Foundations for a descriptive model, based upon observable facts, on what makes the universe tick.

It has been known since the time of Copernicus with recorded history, that Earth is not at the centre of the Cosmos. As knowledge has accumulated over the centuries, we have learnt that the Earth spins about on an axis, like a gyroscope, which in turn is revolving about a star within a sola-system. Even with all of science’s accumulated knowledge, we still know very little about the nature of the Cosmos itself. We know, that time and space are inextricably linked, and this applies to any current theory that you wish to believe in. However, should we be looking at things from a different perspective?

Another way to think of time is to view space, the whole Cosmos, from outside the looking glass. If you imagine its shape to be a rugby-ball that is spinning, with all of its contents moving within in a rotational form, e.g.., bodies such as stars, planets and asteroids all spinning on an axis, with planets revolving about stars, sola-systems revolving within galaxies, clusters of galaxies all spinning about each other within the Cosmos, and the Universe itself rotating; then the co-ordinates for each location in a point of space is constantly changing. It is this change that is measured as time in the special theory of relativity. One has to remember the speed of which planets and galaxies rotate; additionally, that galaxies are shifting their location constantly within an expanding universe. Hence, if one wants to time-travel, they have to relocate to the previous “co-ordinates” of where a planet was or will be, within the Cosmos to travel backwards or forwards in time. I shall endeavour explain this in greater depth later.

It might be possible to measure time’s arrow by looking more carefully at cosmic background radiation, and the frequency of radiation produced from the red-shift due to the expansion of space, as discovered by Edwin Hubble. In addition to the fact that everything is rotating and moving within the Cosmos, shifting co-ordinates, one has to also include the idea of the rugby-ball shaped Universe expanding. If one follows the curvature of space-time due to gravity, also including the expansion of the Universe, then the co-ordinates for the system will alter universally throughout the Cosmos as it expands (or collapses).

Therefore one should ask the question, as to whether there is a purpose for this type of measurable physical constant changing of co-ordinates? And is this purpose, a consequence of the construction of space-time fabric? If so, for every distinct and separate co-ordinate of space-time, from the perspective of looking into the looking glass from outside the Cosmos, is analogous to every photographic shot which is required to make up the full sequence of animation for moving film; you get eventually to see the “big picture”. Therefore a simple deduction can be inferred, if time, which is part of space-time – the very fabric of the Cosmos – has a different co-ordinate for each measurable segment of time, just as each shot of space has the same co-ordinate which is linked to the same temporal measurement, because they are part of space-time, then the probability that all positions of everything within the universe, will have the same position as before, (because the Earth, sola-system and Stellaian galaxy are all changing locations within the Universe, etc.), would be very remote. Therefore, time-travel is possible, based upon the above theory, but by what means? The added bonus is that this does not violate the special theory of relativity. The implications, I will leave others to argue over.

3. Problems of predictability.

“Maxwell’s daemon guards that gate, the cat does have an unpredictable fate”, (Sommer, 2687).

Quantum Mechanics (QM) was devised by Heisenberg back in 1926. Quantum mechanics introduced a whole new set of rules for science to play with. One of the most interesting is what is commonly termed as “particle wave duality”, which leads onto the problem with Schrodinger’s Cat. According to the theorem, developed by Edwin Schrodinger in 1928, it is not possible to measure both attributes of a particle accurately; the attributes being its position and speed. For example, if one were to measure its speed accurately, one could not measure where the particle was heading for in deep-space, where as the position and speed of large bodies in a small reference-frame of space-time can be accurately measured, due to relativity effects and Newton’s laws of mechanics. This poses a whole catalogue of problems, the most common one being that parts of the theories of relativity and quantum mechanics are incompatible.

John Gribbin in, “The Search of Schrodinger’s Cat”, (1991), Black Swan edition, discusses these problems in greater depth. Gribbin also talks about the work of physicist Dr. F. Tipler, in which is suggested that local distortion of a region of space-time by a heavy rotating object would facilitate the possibility of time travel. I shall discuss this issue later in my paper.

Below is an extract from New Scientist, which explains one of the common baffling elements of the slot experiment, which is used to explain particle wave duality.

New Scientist, 13th May 1995, “Wanted: dead or alive”, by Andrew Watson. “Experiments have confirmed that each light particle goes through both slits. It’s like going to the supermarket and exiting through all the checkouts simultaneously.”

Note: Please read the article for further information.

4. Dynamic co-ordinates within space-time allow for time-travel.

In part two, I discussed how the contents of the rugby ball, aka., the Cosmos, has changing co-ordinates. This principle can be used to produce the mechanics of time-travel.

At its basic roots. If you were able to calculate where a planet’s position will be, for a journey forward in time, (or where is was, to go backwards in time), using the reference-frame of the whole Cosmos, and then had at your disposal a very fast star-ship, that could warp space, – this could be like the Tipler model, into a vortex such as a TARDIS in science-fiction does, or like the “Faster Than Light” (FTL) star-ships, but a much faster version of the USS Enterprise, or a space-rocket that could travel somewhere near 0.98*C, – then using the machine, all one needs to do, to “travel in time”, is to work out the co-ordinates of the planet’s position.

So, how in principle would this work? As described in, the planet, say Earth, will have moved forwards in time, as its position changes. Our galaxy moves many 100s of thousands of meters every minute within the Cosmos – in a linear type position, allowing for the curved aperture of gravitational effects within space-time. So as the contents of the galaxy is moving inside of the blender, being flung about, changing their positions constantly, – hence changing their co-ordinates, – the calculations required to determine where the planet will be before one makes the jump to time-travel is not going to be an easy task – this should be either instantaneous, such as with a wormhole, or within a short period, a matter of microseconds for short distances to a few hours to cross from one end of the universe to the other, such as with a TARDIS, simply because they take time to time-travel. One would need a powerful “thinking machine” to calculate the co-ordinates – some sort of bio-matter, DNA, interfaced to an artificial intelligence computing machine, structured like a brain with synapses for connections instead of transistors.

To clarify, here are two examples. If someone wants to go back to the stone-age, they have to figure out where the planet was – its co-ordinates – all of those billions of seconds ago – aka., thousands of years ago. If one wants to go forward in time to the 25 century, then you have to try and work out where the planet will be – its location/ co-ordinates – in the 25ct., etc..

Additionally, as a bonus trick, if you had a powerful enough computational machine, you would be able to materialise the ship into a location of where a building will be on arrival as the planet is moving in space, when the real-world interface co-ordinates connect to the compressed space or vortex compressed space produced by the time-machine.

The time-machine would work, by being able to determine where the matter is within the Cosmos and going to it rapidly. However, the whole principle is founded on whether my description of co-ordinates for every space-event within the universe is unique, with the exception where any possible parallel universes might join up. The implication with this is that space-time itself has some sort of universal co-ordinate system.

An interesting point that is worthy of inclusion is the science-fiction story, “Planet of The Apes”, (1967), directed by Franklin J. Schaffner. We learn from Heston at the first section of the story, before the apes capture him, that the mission which the crew were on, was to travel to what they thought was deep space, to a distant planet in the Orion system; in accordance to the scientists calculations, by looking through a telescope before the mission began – or what ever means. For the ship to achieve this journey to the Orion system, it travelled very fast and was designated as a time-machine, as it followed some scientist’s principles of time-travel. The occupants had only aged by a few short months in stasis sleep, expect for the woman crew member who’s cabinet had cracked and she had aged by approximately one hundred years. At the end of the story, we learn that it wasn’t a distant planet in the Orion system that they had travelled to, but Earth, several centuries into the future. The planet’s position had changed, presumably to where Orion was – this is an assumption that can be made from the film. What the scientist didn’t account for was that the Earth, along with its galaxy and the cluster of galaxies that are grouped together within this small quadrant of the Universe, are rotating and shifting their position within the Universe, therefore, their trip forward in time only lead to the travellers landing on Earth centuries into the future; a fluke? I always thought that the story was a neat idea.

5. Flavours of time-machines.

In developing a time-machine, one would be developing a machine that has the ability to work out the co-ordinates and to travel universal distances within a short period. However, the fabrication of the time-machine’s basic structure has already been provided, it is the Cosmos itself.

Basic principles.

In the Science Fiction of Star Trek (TM), their ships are propelled by “Warp Nacelles”. This process is called CDP – Continuum distortion propulsion.

A CDP engine system works by shooting plasma into the centres of a type of tours using super-conducting magnets which can take temperatures tens of thousands of degrees above zero. There are several tori arranged in series along the nacelle. Part of the plasma’s energy is turned into a weak gravitational field, due to the construction of the warp field coils, by constantly injecting plasma along the nacelle from fore to aft with precise computer controlled timing mechanisms.

The energy output around the ship, works by having a series of warp fields. The vibration of space from the warp field-coils, produces gravitational fluxes that act like audio frequencies which vibrate a paper-cone within a speaker to produce sound. It is the collective production of these gravitational fluxes with precise timing of the frequencies that will create an simulated flow of gravitational wave energy, from fore to aft. This produces linear warp fight. In effect, its principle is the same as a magneto-hydrodynamic “caterpillar” drive.

An analogy of how the warp field is produced, would be to continually drop pebbles into a pond, along a linear axis normal to the wave front, precisely behind the ripple on the surface. The net result is that more power is added to the wave, localised to where the pebble was dropped. In the film, “The Hunt for Red October”, Paramount, directed by John McTieran, the submarine was propelled by using a series of super-conducting magnets in a torus shape, with an electric current being passed through the water flowing through the structure. In New Scientist a few years ago, a yacht called the “Yatamato”, was propelled by a similar method.

From experimentation, we have learned that plasma fields within a torus super-conducting structure, can be made to make the structure physically “jump”. In Culham in Oxfordshire, at the Joint European Torus (JET), experiments are being conducted into producing nuclear fusion with plasma, the same mechanics that our star, the Sun, uses to produce its energy.

“By sustaining thermonuclear reactions for nearly twenty seconds in a mixture of deuterium and tritium, two isotopes of hydrogen, JET researchers have proved that fusion is scientifically possible”, Michael Kenward, New Scientist, No. 1795, “Fusion becomes a hot bed for the Future”.

Note: Please read the article for further information.

The machine being used is a Tokamak super-conductor, which looks like a large ring-doughnut device which contains plasma with magnetic and electric fields; the plasma is doughnut shaped. They discovered during the project, before they made their first successful fusion experiment, that if the ring of plasma becomes unstable due to increased magnetic flux, the ring wants to twist. As the ring is a form of solidified plasma, it made the whole tokamak mechanism physically move, i.e., “jump” off the ground, before the plasma dissipated. This principle could be used in the propulsion of an solid object through space-time. BBC2’s Horizon Science Program covered this particular aspect of development.  There are essentially several choices of time machine; for example:

The first would be a “rocket” ship or conventional star-ship using rocket type technology, travelling very fast to effect time-travel by the compression of space, which occurs naturally as the speed of the vehicle nearly becomes C.

The next type is the warp speed ship, – like with the USS Enterprise, NCC1701-D, in Star Trek: The Next Generation – but this ship would have to travel much more faster, in effect, doing a similar trick to our rocket ship, in addition to its warp space compressing abilities. The next type is the Tipler version, – like a TARDIS, – which uses warp technology at tangents of angular momentum, similar to a gyroscope in principle but more complex, to create a vortex. It swaps the “temporal dimension” for a “spatial dimension”. This principle negates the foundation of extremely fast speed transversing in a linear format – allowing for the curved apertures produced by gravitational effects in space-time – and instead directly taps into the universal co-ordinate system by creating a fast rotational momentum within a reference frame.

The next flavour, is the instantaneous type of travel format, i.e., the worm-hole. Worm-holes in principle share a similarity with black-holes. At either end of the worm-hole, there is what can be described as a “conical flask shaped mouth”, which allows the traveller to enter into one end and cross to any part of the Cosmos in a few seconds to minutes to emerge out of a twin like aperture.

Then into higher dimensions one could use the principles of hyper-space, which function on a higher plane to warp travel methods. It should be noted that, warp is often referred to as FTL, Faster Than Light travel. The mechanics as described before, do not make the craft travel above or at light speed, but instead compress space, aka., warps it.

One of the basic concepts to be remembered is that, with relativity, frames of reference are employed; this is also true for ships travelling at warp speed. With the dimensions created within vortex or hyper-space, the reference-frame does not apply because one is outside of “normal” space-time; therefore they cannot be observed in transit. For an observer outside of the reference frame, where the occupants of that reference-frame are travelling at warp speed, they may seem to be moving across space x-number of times faster than the speed of light. However, they may only be moving at half the speed of light with a high compression ratio of space.

6. Problems with warp travel and additional technical information.

When travelling in space at warp speed, what happens if the warp bubble surrounding the ship dissipates? Well for a start, at warp speed you are not travelling at or above light speed. But if you were travelling in a craft above light speed, when the ship slows down to the speed of light, it would possibly become a naked singularity as its mass would become infinite with zero length, therefore becoming a 2d object, like a cosmic string. Another possibility is that as the object has mass, it would become a black-hole. If its mass were to be negatively balanced against the forces of the deceleration, in proportion to the quantum wave effect, then the object would become zero massed at infinite speed and be like a photon, able to occupy all points of space-time in the Cosmos simultaneously.

As I have said previously, warp drive does not actually make the ship travel faster than the speed of light (300,000km/s, >~ 186,000mi/s). Warp creates a trick by folding or compressing space-time in front of it in a linear fashion. For an analogy, think of a paper lantern, that is made in the shape of a double-helix, – like DNA. When space-time is at a “normal state”, uncompressed by warp technology, then the lantern can be seen to be at its normal size and shape. When you enter into warp, the effect is analogous to compressing the paper ends of the lantern to squash the structure together. This bends it out of its normal shape, into a different dimension and also brings closer the distance one travels linearly. The more compressed the distance is, the shorter one has to travel. However, in space-time, this compression with warp technology is achieved by frequency amplitudes of the warp field production. Therefore as the compression rate increases, so must the frequency of the warp field. The frequency shift will cause dissipation-ripples through to shock-waves that emanate out from the point of origin, leaking used energy back into space-time. This type of space is often referred to as sub-space, within the science-fiction of Star Trek.

Space-time’s structure is based upon the Planck length, ~3.124*10-34. If you were an observer looking at a star-ship in warp from your reference-frame, and it is travelling at 1/2 the speed of light while warping space-time at a rate of spatial compression 200x the normal length of space, then its apparent speed would be half of this, to an outside observer, i.e.., 100*C.

7. Developing a SIGDM module.

Ok, so now I have described the basic principles behind warp theory and the possibility of time-travel. However, these basic descriptions that I have given on how one could achieve time-travel only suggest a viable way for it to be achieved. I now propose to discuss the basic construction of such a device.

In New Scientist, on 24/31st December 1994, No. 1957/8, pp22-25, “Wormholes in Wonderland”, Ian Stewart suggests “According to relativity theory, matter can’t move through space faster then the speed of light. But, and this is the neat bit, there’s no limit on the speed with which space can move”.

Note: Please read the article for further information.

If the warp system was to be changed, from a linear form of spatial compression as with warp nacelles, to that of a cylindrical gyro-dynamic topology, then the measurement of the tangent curve of space-time would be totally different for a ship in warp speed. The created angular momentum would cause the ship to spin about an axis, parallel to the sub-space frame into a vortex, and therefore the dimensions for space-time would be changeable as space compression becomes cyclic and not linear.

In order to make this work, there are several main types of components that have to be threaded together. First, we need to take into account the forces that the plasma field produced within the tokamak at JET in Culham. Its ability to move the whole structure from a stationary position, remembering that the device weighs several tonnes, and is being held down by the gravitational force of the Earth, 1G. This would serve as a mechanism for propulsion for the machine, as part of a linear warp field.

The next phase, is based upon my theory of changing the spatial dynamics from linear to a “cylindrical gyro-dynamic topology”, see above. Its functionality would work as follows. In the natural world, there is a creature called a water beetle. It moves by surrounding itself within an air bubble, under pressure, to act like a second skin. This second skin acts like a glass bubble, tensile and strong.

It is possible to achieve a solid and impregnable glass-type spherical structure by using the principle of what occurs naturally to electromagnetic waves when they encounter a change with inductive or capacitive medium. If this were to be charged with an “correct” number to positive and negative ions, then it would produce a barrier which would prevent any atom from passing through; in effect, it is a “force field” as used in the science-fiction of Star Trek and Doctor Who. For the time-machine, it should have several spherical force-fields, based upon the above principles and created from electrical energy, and additionally using the warp core’s gravitational fields of the nacelle structure in a torus, to create a gyro-dynamic environment.

For the next phase, the mechanics come again from nature, the principle of flight that birds use. Aeroplanes fly, due to the different pressures above and below their wings to give lift. With the force-fields, the boundary later principle should be applied, and between the different layers, plasma energy should be entrapped, with different rates of pressures exerted amongst the different layers of force-fields. As a part of this system, a rotating induction field can be applied to encompass the whole machine. This should have the net result of producing an vortex of space-time about the ship.

The final part of mechanical trickery to create the full envelope effect, is the introduction of the principles as found within the process of sonoluminescence.

Summary: As described before, the ship is surrounded by a set of spherical force-fields. Within these are plasma and other substances, each sandwich content will have a different pressure applied to it. In addition, sonic vibrations, or vibrations of the shields should be added – to act like the process of sonoluminescence – to agitate the content and to create shock-waves that create additional pressures and temperatures to make fusion. The shells should be able to expand and collapse in size to create the process as seen in sonoluminescence. Then the whole encompassing enveloping mechanics should rotate at a high velocity, with shields rotating in different directions, perpendicular to the direction of the first force-field. The net result of all of this, with the shells contents being subjected to vibrations, shock-waves being produced, rotation of the shells, and the shells and their plasma and other gaseous contents rapidly: expanding, cooling, collapsing, and heating with the various pressures being produced, with the addition of hot and cold temperatures being applied to the various shells exteriors; is that space-time about the machine, will be drawn into a vortex of higher dimensions, allowing “unlimited” time-travel.

This vortex would act to distort the fabric of space-time such that a localised region of space would become compressed up to approximately 99% about the machine, thus allowing the co-ordinates for time and space to be interchangeable – hence, space is warped about the machine. Alternatively, from calculations by a computational machine, two regions of space-time could be compressed together simultaneously, thus creating a type of worm hole aperture – hence, the machine warps about space. Instead of visualising this as an time machine, one should think of it rather as a transference module. The machine is called a: Spatial Inductive Gyrodynamic Distortion Module (SIGDM).

For this to work, the theory that all things within the Cosmos rotate thus changing co-ordinates, must apply. Please read the article in New Scientist which describes what Sonoluminescence is and how it works. Below is some abstracted material from that article, providing information that will help the reader understand the full proposal of the SIGDM device.

New Scientist, 29th April 1995, pp36-40, “Bubbles hotter than the Sun”, by Lawrence A. Crum and Kenneth S. Suslick.

“TAKE a jar of water, pass sound waves through it and, hey presto, it gives off light. …It turns out that when sound waves are passed through water, they generate tiny bubbles that are expert at focusing energy. And in the process, these bubbles can reach temperatures that are hotter than the surface of the Sun and pressures tens or thousands of times that of the Earth’s atmosphere, opening the way to exotic chemical reactions using astonishingly simple equipment… .”


If one takes into account what I said before in developing a SIGDM module, and applies discoveries that have been made in sonoluminescence, then it is practically possible to create such a machine today. The technology exists, albert in an unconnected manner, however, careful thoughts should be made on the creation of such machines, because irresponsible development, testing and use could lead to the destruction of the very fabric of space-time.

To answer the question, “Is the construction of a time-machine just wild hypothetical theory that scientists and science-fiction writers discuss?”, the answer is no. There currently exists the knowledge and technology to build “simple” time-machines in the form of rocket ships. However, there is not seen to be any need for even a computer probe system to do this. One thing to remember, this is still just a theory, until it can be proved one way or the other.


In New Scientist, on 1st April 1995, No. 1971, p3, “Faster than Einstein”, there is an article that talks about the research into faster-than-light travel, and time-travel as strange consequences of quantum tunnelling. This is taken from the weeks leading main article entitled “Faster than the speed of light”, by Julian Brown. The Editorial suggests:

“If the peak probability is somewhere around the middle of the wave, the front of the wave will enter the barrier before the peak. If the barrier somehow changes the shape of the wave, the peak may emerge at the front of the wave, making it seem as if the particles have travelled through the barrier faster than they should. Even thought the front of the wave will never exceed the speed of light and causality will stay secure.”

In the main article, New Scientist 1st April 1995, No. 1971, by Julian Brown, “Faster than the speed of light”, on p29, it is suggested that:

“No matter how much reshaping a barrier produces, the wave peak can never overtake the front of the wave packet.”

This would suggest that a quantum particle’s wave packet follows the science-fictional warp theory principles (as described in UseNet rec.arts.startrek.tech news group postings and Star Trek: The Next Generation, Technical Manual,) in combination with frequency shifts and the Doppler effect.

But if the peak of the wave cannot leave its reference frame barrier, – like relativity and the science-fiction of warp theory in which a starship cannot exceed C in warp drive – what about applying a field external to the quantum wave front. What if a frequency shift of compression is added to the area surrounding the wave front of the particle, so you have another “skin” (like a beatles bubble) surrounds the wave front producing a frequency to cancel out the particles wave front to stretch its area of containment, thus allowing warp compression of the space within the total area of the expanded wave front, aka., the bubble. Just a wild thought.



  • John Gribbin, “The Search of Schrodinger’s Cat”, (1991), Black Swan edition.


  • New Scientist, 13th May 1995, Vol. 146, No. 1977, Andrew Watson, “Wanted: dead or alive”, IPC Magazines Ltd, ISSN: 0262-4079.
  • New Scientist, 29th April 1995, Vol. 146, No. 1975, Lawrence A. Crum and Kenneth S. Suslick, “Bubbles hotter than the Sun”, pp36-40, IPC Magazines Ltd, ISSN: 0262-4079.
  • New Scientist, 1st April 1995, Vol. 146, No. 1971, Editorial, “Faster than Einstein”, p3, IPC Magazines Ltd, ISSN: 0262-4079.
  • New Scientist, 1st April 1995, Vol. 146, No. 1971, Julian Brown, “Faster than the speed of light”, pp26-30, IPC Magazines Ltd, ISSN: 0262-4079.
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  • “The Hunt for Red October”, (1990), directed by John McTieran, Produced in 1989 by Paramount.
  • “Planet of The Apes”, (1967), directed by Franklin J. Schaffner, Produced by Twentieth Century Fox Film Corporation.
  • “Star Trek II: The Wrath of Khan”, (1982), directed by Nicholas Meyer, Produced by Paramount Pictures Corporation.


  • Article: 24689 of rec.arts.sf.science Newsgroups: rec.arts.sf.science Subject: Time Machines and the Universal co-ordinate system – Very Long

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